RADIUS. Remote Access Dial-In User Service. A networking protocol that enables centralised authorisation, authentication, and accounting bewteen client devices/remote users and a central server.
RAM. Random Access Memory. A type of computer hardware that stores volatile memory, which can be read and changed in any order. Typically, such memory refers to information or instructions associated only with currently active processes and applications.
RASP. Runtime Application Self-Protection. A software security solution that is purposely built into an application and activates at runtime to detect and stop cyber attacks from compromising the application and its data using a native visibility into the internal elements and state of the application. RASP enables an application to continuously monitor its own behavior and respond to suspicious activity.
RAT. Remote Access Tool. A software program that enables a user to reach, use, and manipulate computer systems from a remote location.
RAT. Remote Administration Tool. A software program that enables a user to fully control a remotely located computer as if the user can physically access the computer.
RBA. Risk-based Assessment. A process wherein potential threats and hazards are identified followed by a thorough analysis of resulting impact if such hazards occur. In cybersecurity, RBAs are typically conducted to determine the cost of disruptions to critical business operations.
RBAC. Role-based Access Control. A security paradigm, policy, and method that implements network access restrictions based on the roles of individual users in an organisation. RBAC permits employees to access only the services and data they need to perform their jobs and accomplish authorised tasks.
RCA. Root Cause Analysis. A problem-solving methodology that closely examines a problem with the goal of determining the primary factors that cause it.
RCE. Remote Code Execution. A type of vulnerability and a method of cyber attack wherein the threat actor acquires and exercises the ability to remotely run malicious code on the target machine over a public or private network. RCEs are considered among the most serious cyber attacks and can lead to massive data theft and complete unauthorised control over the target network.
RCP. Remote Copy. A Unix command for copying one or more files between machines using the TCP/IP protocol.
RDP. Remote Desktop Protocol. A network communications protocol developed by Microsoft that enables a user to remotely access and control a computer via a secure channel.
RE. Reverse Engineering. The process of closely examining a piece of software or hardware to fully understand its structure, functions, and behavior.
REST. Representational State Transfer. A communication framework that allows resource transfer between diverse computer systems on the web.
RF. Radio Frequency. The oscillation rate of a radio wave, widely used in radio communication technology. Threat actors instigate RF attacks on devices that use associated technologies such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi.
RFI. Remote File Inclusion. A cyber attack that exploits web application vulnerabilities associated with the “include” function in scripting languages. RFI attacks enable threat actors to upload malware from a remote URL in a different domain, following up with subsequent attacks to steal data, compromise the target web server, or take total control of a website.
RFI. Request For Information. A formal procedure and the key document for said procedure, used for gathering technical and/or market information about a product, service, or provider. RFIs are typically used to create a shortlist of vendors to help buyers make informed purchasing decisions.
RFID. Radio Frequency Identification. A wireless communication system that uses electromagnetic tags and readers to uniquely identify a person, animal, or object. Malicious hackers use RFID skimming/reading devices to — among other things — steal information stored in RFID tags.
RFP. Request For Proposal. A document prepared by a technology buyer containing the buyer’s key functional/business requirements that is sent to vendors who can respond by describing the elements, capabilities, and development timeline for the proposed solution and how much said solution would cost.
RFQ. Request for Quotation. A document prepared by a technology buyer containing a list of (typically off-the-shelf) services or products the buyer intends to purchase. The vendor is expected to provide a quotation detailing the individual and total cost of all the items in the list.
RM. Records Management. The organisational field, practice, and function pertaining to the administration of various types of records and documents across their life cycle — from creation to disposal.
RM. Risk Management. The field and process of identifying, evaluating, mitigating, and reducing the likelihood of all types of threat an organisation faces, including those related to security, financial uncertainty, legal liability, natural disasters, data loss, business disruptions, management errors, and crime (i.e., white-collar, blue-collar, cyber).
RMF. Risk Management Framework. A U.S. federal guideline and process developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to help organisations identify, eliminate, and minimise risks; and secure their information systems.
RMI. Remote Method Invocation. A Java API (application program interface) that allows an object to call a procedure on an object located in another address space, either on the same or on a remote machine. RMI has a vulnerability exploited by threat actors to make unauthenticated network intrusions leading to operating system takeover, arbitrary code executions, and other cyber attacks.
ROA. Route Origin Authorization. A cryptographically verifiable claim or attestation that declares which Autonomous System (AS) is authorised to originate a specific Internet prefix or a set of IP prefixes.
ROM. Read-Only Medium. A digital device that holds information and other data that can be read but not overwritten. Trypically, ROM devices block any attempt to write, encode, or save data unless reformatted.
ROM. Read-Only Memory. A type of computer storage — typically memory chips — containing pre-recorded, non-volatile, and permanent data that can only be read, not written to nor modified. Containing the boot firmware, ROMs allow computing devices to start up and refresh each time they are tuned on.
ROP. Return-Oriented Programming. A cyber exploit method used by criminal hackers to run maliciously sequenced instructions on target devices or networks even in the presence of security measures such as code signing and executable space protection. This exploit is made possible when an attacker gains control of the call stack, acquiring the ability to manipulate program control flow and execute a carefully chosen sequence of trusted software that achieves their criminal purposes.
ROPA. Record of Processing Activity. A dynamic living document mandated under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) to be kept by all organisations which control or process personal data in covered jurisdictions.
RPC. Remote Procedure Call. A network programming method and interprocess communication technique that enables a computer program to request a service or invoke a procedure from a program located in another computer or network, without the need to know and describe the source entity’s details. Also called function call, subroutine call.
RPKI. Resource Public Key Infrastructure. A network security framework that uses cryptographic signatures and certifications aimed at protecting the Internet’s routing system. Among other things, RPKI validates the association between the owners of specific address blocks and the declared autonomous system numbers (ASN).
RPO. Recovery Point Objective. The acceptable age limit of data (measured backwards in time) that must be restored from backup resources to resume normal operations after an organisation’s computer system or network has been disrupted by hardware malfunction, software glitch, natural disasters, communication failures, cyber attack, and other causes.
RQ. Risk Intelligence. An organisation’s ability to gather, identify, analyse, and exploit information about uncertainties in the business and technology landscape for the purpose of improving its competitive advantage and making well-informed security decisions.
RSA. Rivest-Shamir-Adleman. A type of public-key cryptographic algorithm and system widely used to secure data transmission over typically unprotected channels such as the Internet.
RSH. Remote Shell. A tool for running instructions on a device via a command-line shell on another device across a computer network. Widely used to remotely configure, monitor, fix, and use devices, RS can also be exploited by cyber criminals to breach targeted computers.
RTFM. Read The F*cking Manual. A comic response or sarcastic retort commonly used by tech professionals in situations where the answer to a question can easily be found in very accessible sources such as a user’s manual, a service FAQ, product documentation, and an online help page.
RTGS. Real-Time Gross Settlement. A form of electronic financial transaction typically used by banks that enable the instantaneous transfer of money and/or securities.
RTO. Recovery Time Objective. The maximum length of time acceptable to an organisation within which it expects to restore its normal operations after being disrupted by a natural or human-caused disaster, aimed at driving business continuity and mitigating the consequences of a prolonged downtime.
RTP. Real-time Transport Protocol. A network standard for the optimised and consistent delivery of audio and/or video data over the Internet. RTP is commonly used in communication, conferencing, entertainment, and streaming systems.
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