AAA. Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting. A system for keeping track of computer resources in an internet-based network and for controlling user access to those resources.
AACA. ASD-Approved Cryptographic Algorithm. An algorithm for data encryption/decryption that is approved by the Australian Signals Directorate.
AACP. ASD-Approved Cryptographic Protocol. A protocol for encryption/decryption that is approved by the Australian Signals Directorate.
ABAC. Attribute Based Access Control. A system whereby a subject’s request for authorisation to perform a set of tasks is resolved based on attributes associated with the subject, the tasks, the context of the request, and other factors.
ABI. Application Binary Interface. An interface that connects two binary program units whereby data is exchanged using low-level, hardware-dependent machine code.
AC. Access Control. Policies and mechanisms that regulate and restrict access to computer resources.
ACE. Access Control Entry. An authorised entrypoint for using a system resource.
ACE. Arbitrary Code Execution. A threat actor’s ability to run any command or execute any code on a target machine or process.
ACL. Access Control Lists. A list of access authorisations (i.e., persmissions) associated with a computer resource.
AD. Active Directory. A directory service developed by Microsoft for Windows-based networks.
ADB. Android Debug Bridge. A programming tool for finding and fixing software flaws in Android-based devices.
ADFS. Active Directory Federation Services. A set of software services developed by Microsoft that enables users to access resources within a Windows Server environment via a single sign-on.
AES. Advanced Encryption Standard. A data encryption specification established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
AH. Authentication Header. A security mechanism used in IP-based networks that authenticates the origin of data packets being exchanged and guarantees that the data are not modified during transmission.
AI. Artificial Intelligence. Intelligence attributed to machines, especially computer systems.
AMS. Asset Management System. A system for tracking and optimising the value of an organisation’s resources such as hardware, software, and various types of business tools and equipment.
ANSI. American National Standards Institute. An organisation that oversees voluntary standards development for systems, services, and products in the US.
AP. Access Point. A hardware device that allows Wi-Fi devices to connect to a wired network.
API. Application Programming Interface. A software module that functions as an intermediary between two or more computer applications by enabling said applications to exchange data or communicate information.
APK. Android Package. The file format and extension used by Android-based systems and software such as mobile apps and games. A mechanism used by web/network administrators for replicating databases across a set of DNS (domain name system) servers.
APT. Advanced Persistent Threat. An elusive threat actor (often a state-sponsored group) that gains unauthorised and extended access to a computer network, remaining undetected for long periods of time.
ARO. Annualised Rate of Occurrence. The number of times a security incident is likely to occur based on a set of known factors.
AS. Application Server. A server that hosts one or more software applications.
AS. Autonomous System. A set of IP routing prefixes controlled by one or more network operators on behalf of a single organisation, administrative domain, or entity. The AS is assigned a unique 16-digit identification number called an autonomous system number (ASN).
ASCII. American Standard Code for Information Interchange. An encoding standard for representing characters in electronic communication. ASCII consists of 128 characters including numbers, letters, punctuation marks, and symbols.
ASD. Australian Signals Directorate. A federal agency that forms part of Australia’s Intelligence Community and whose mandate covers foreign signals intelligence, cyber warfare, and information security.
ASIO. Australian Security Intelligence Organisation. The Australian security agency tasked to protect the country and its citizens from espionage, sabotage, terrorism, adversarial foreign interference, and other threats.
ASLR. Address Space Layout Randomization. A cybersecurity technique that helps prevent the exploitation of computer memory corruption vulnerabilities.
ASN. Autonomous System Number. A unique 16-digit identification assigned to an Autonomous System (AS).
ASV. Approved Scanning Vendors or Approved Scanning Vendor for PCI. An accredited vendor that provides data security services such as (external vulnerability scanning) to help companies evaluate their adherence to the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS).
ATA. Advanced Technology Attachment. A standard physical interface between a computer and internal storage devcies such as hard disks and CD-ROMs. Also known as ATA with PAcket Interface (ATAPI), or Integrated Device Electronics (IDE).
ATM. Asynchronhous Transfer Mode. A telecommunications standard for digital transmission of data traffic, including voice and video.
ATM. Automated Teller Machine. An electronic machine that enables bank customers to make basic transactions (including cash deposits and withdrawals) without the assitance of human tellers or cashiers.
ATP. Advanced Threat Protection. A class of IT security solutions that protect businesses and users from sophisticated cyber attacks and malware that often target sensitive data. ATPs can come as a suite of software solutions or managed security services.
ATT&CK. Adversarial Tactics, Techniques and Common Knowledge. A framework developed by the Mitre Corp. for classifying and describing cyber attacks.
AUP. Acceptable Use Policy. A set of guidelines established by the owner of a service or product that restricts the manner in which said product or service can be used.
AUSTEO. Australian Eyes Only. A classification for data or information that are only accessible exclusively by Australian citizens, and prohibits their sharing to non-Australians.
AV. Antivirus. A software program that protects a computer system from various types of malware such as computer viruses.
AWS. Amazon Web Services. An Amazon subsidiary that provides cloud technology services to individuals and organisations, often on a metered usage basis.
AXFR. Asynchronous Transfer Full Range. A mechanism used by web and network administrators for replicating databases across a set of DNS (domain name system) servers.
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